Mobile Marketing Practices

Gonca Telli Yamamoto. Mobilized Marketing and the Consumer: Technological Developments and Challenges. Hershey, PA: Business Science Reference, 2010.

Business types seen in e-commerce such as: e-shopping, e-store, e-tailing, e-auctioning, e-banking, e-trading, e-entertaining, e-learning, e-realtor, e-gambling, e-directory, e-news, e-zine, e-advertising, and e-logistics are now transforming into m-shopping, m-store, m-tailing, m-auctioning, m-banking, m-trading, m-entertaining, m-learning, m-realtor, m-gambling, m-directory, m-news, m-zine, m-advertising, and m-logistics.

According to Warren, Hakes and Simmons (2009), mobile marketing can be conducted in eight ways. These are:

  • Mobile messages,

  • Mobile portal,

  • Mobile off portal,

  • Mobile broadcast,

  • Mobile content,

  • Mobile CRM,

  • Mobile local,

  • Mobile handsets.

According to Strategy Analytics White Paper (2008), more people are spending more time using mobile phones, with the phones themselves, and the way people use them are changing dramatically. Nowadays “data usage” is any non-voice application that uses the mobile handset as the delivery platform. Mostly employed mobile marketing practices are mobile wap, mobile services (data, business etc), mobile messaging, mobile portal, research, broadcast, content, handsets and terminals. These practices are shortly explained within this chapter.

Mobile Internet/WAP


As also stated earlier, mobile phones were not used for any other purposes than simple text messages and voice calls until the 1990s. However, in that decade, significant studies have appeared with regard to small screen web and similar browsing activities (Buchanan et al., 2001).

According to Saarikoski (2006), different interpretations arose in the west regarding what mobile Internet is. When Saarikoski began to his work, The Odyssey of the Mobile Internet in 2003, he expressed a definition which is quite different than what is understood in 2008. For example, according to the simplest definition, it is a direct connection to the Internet via a mobile phone or portable device. According to a highly specific definition; on the other hand, it is to receive a detailed standard document through a mobile Internet device or network. It means the use of a very clear and concrete benefit-creating ability even when the person is on the move.

Again according to Saarikoski (2006), from the perspective of the user, mobile Internet is receiving value added service through a mobile network accessed by a small and light device. The definition of mobile network is the continuity of a connection even when the user is on the move (in cases of changing place in anyway). The devices used are those with both battery life and with the feature of making voice calls all the time. In the access and use of such services, the content is required to be easy and the system should have the ability to load the mentioned content. Here, probably the user may also participate in creating the content because the content of a personalized device should also be tailored to a person's demands. These means can be interpreted as benefits to the user which can be considered as simple and easy.

According to Necat (2007), Mobile Internet Technology (MIT) is a system where the information is carried to the mobile user via various devices. Leading such devices are mobile phones, personal PDAs and laptop computers, etc. In essence, MIT provides the communication between storage or pool of information and a mobile device. Wireless networks provide communication via wireless applications that are created with various mark-up languages, communication protocols and user interfaces. This definition of MIT expresses the handling style of mobile Internet from a technological aspect. Mobile Internet application development has various difficulties (see Table 1). The leading difficulties are the device types with various capacities, multi-browser applications, mark-up languages, capacity differences, and application diverseness.


Table 1. Difficulties of developing mobile internet applications
Device types with different capacities
Multi mark-up languages
Multi browser applications
Multi applications of WAP Standard
Differences in customer processing capacities
Application of cookies
Differences in situation management
Poor development user interfaces
Security levels
Other

WAP (wireless application protocol) is briefly the infrastructure of access to the Internet via mobile phone. This system is considered as a group formed in order to access the Internet from mobile devices.

WAP systems can be considered in two categories as common as WAP systems and WAP push systems. The first one is the common system that enable accessing to websites and information from devices such as the mobile phone which were mentioned afore in general, while WAP push systems are those systems that come on stream when the customer receives a short message that contains a clickable link, not unlike a URL embedded in an email, that causes the content to be downloaded. The consumer may have opted for a service that sends such messages in areas of interest, or may have initiated the exchange in response to a print ad, or may have found something of interest while browsing the mobile web.

As the mobile phone is a personal device due to its structure, it is quite natural for them to carry very large amounts of information. This information may include names, telephone numbers, recorded messages, e-mails, birthdays and dates, diary and even the number of steps the person takes in a certain time period. This can naturally be considered as logic that enables development in the social network provided by Web 2.0 applications. Web 2.0 applications may be considered as user interaction and development of the main principles on how Internet is operated regardless if it is fixed or mobile.

Internet has gone beyond being only a simple online source which is consulted, researched and acted accordingly. Internet has gradually turned into a network where information is open to common use for the social masses and databases are rapidly shared. Already the websites such as Facebook, Twister, and YouTube are among its best examples in this recent period. Therefore, Web 1.0 is only regarded as a publishing device (which distributes information and knowledge), while Web 2.0 can be considered as a content provider platform which also evaluates creative content and focuses on the subject.

In order to use the mobile Internet properties; in addition, to a mobile device with the required features, the user should also undertake the costs to be realized in this regard. These costs should not be only considered as material, but also as other social and individual costs.

Mobile Services


There is not an exact conceptual definition with regard to mobile services yet, while it expresses different meanings in telecommunication, information systems media or service markets that use or make use of the mobile. Mobile services present real time, on-demand access to content that makes it more valuable to the customers (Kleijnen, de Ruyter and Wetzels, 2007). According to Pihlström (2008), mobile service can be defined as the content services that can be provided by a mobile device. These are any kind of services that can be retrieved via mobile device and that can be delivered in interaction between an organization and customer.

Mobile Data Services


Collecting and working with data and creating and analyzing new forms of data are different kinds of services from the other. The analysis of data are in many areas such as data related new generation technologies as mobile services, business administration strategies and planning, sample case modeling for enterprises, customer segmentation and target market identification, penetration into a new market or launching a new product, developing cooperation, project management, and providing new evaluations according to customer request, and auction strategy, and their reduction into suitable structures and transmission to relevant organizations can be made owing to the mobile systems of our present day.

Here, on the one hand, whether certain services related with some research oriented data, and on the other hand, the transformation of obtained data is strategically in accordance with companies' requirements are in question. Mobile devices have the ability to integrate activities in every area of marketing. So, mobile devices have been involved in enterprises as an element that supports the integrated marketing approach (Yamamoto, 2003).

Operating Strategy and Planning: Acquisition of information is a service type required in creating, changing or abandoning strategic decisions. In mobile data systems, it is possible to use mobile data and reach the latest information. The up-to-datedness, coherence and scope of the data obtained for identification of operating strategies and the preparation of suitable plans is critically important. Information is an element which is always required. Literarily, the data industry is being developed on mobile systems.

The mobile data industry is changing very fast, and both the producers and customers need to obtain appropriate data in order to adapt rapidly into this change or to solve any problems which they might encounter. Companies that provide service on this issue are gradually representing a more professional approach in formulating, implementing and evaluating cross functional decisions which are in accordance with their clients' objectives. Information service providers observe domestic and foreign events (especially global tendencies) and enable being informed of the changes in the right time when the necessity arises; thus, also enabling the control of mobile instruments, services and products, production, marketing and market dynamics. The industry of mobile instrument production may also benefit from the same platform and carry out studies to meet new demands.

Business Modeling: Financial analyses, business analyses and models are produced in order to enable clients to carry out their businesses better and more successfully. In this sense, information services -in close contact with customers- aim to disclose the details requested by the customer such as financial liabilities, opportunities and the periods of work to be done. Appropriate strategies can be developed with the help of customer-tailored and flexible business models and/or instruments.

Market and Customer Segmentation: Addressing to the entire market does not seem to be a quite successful option for competing in the present mobile market. Segmentation is the process of separating potential customers into subgroups according to similar demands, requirements and characteristics (for example, similar sales behaviors). As a result, it is possible to measure and acquire the behavioral tendencies of customers. This may provide the targeting of niche markets in the mobile environment to be created, or facilitating the formation of new opportunities on the basis of customer characteristics and the physical use of the information.

Market Research and Competition Analysis: In the area where marketing elements are located in the mobile system, the evaluation of the market and the activities of competitors have the utmost importance. The purpose here is to measure market size and growth potential, to identify the trends that lead the market and to outline the competitive structure and the new competitive tendencies that arise. Creative ideas may be required as the usability of competition based on momentary changes in the market is in question. Despite fast decision making risks, it may also provide the advantages of being near the customer.

Marketing and Launching Product: The use of correct vehicles in presenting the products to the market, addressing to the correct mass and presenting the correct content and its effective and efficient use in terms of finance and marketing should be considered. Here, the key point is the inclusion of new products, services and applications in the mobile ecosystem and their presentation as prepared in accordance with all units. [Shape, form, color, ease of use, provision of access superiority, price and possession of other skills satisfactory for personal preferences, as well as the elimination of the effects of the physical environment (in water, in air, etc.)].

Cooperation and Partnership Development: In terms of maintaining the continuity of operations, finding partners that support each other for strategic development and developing cooperation and partnership is an important marketing policy. This policy provides cooperation towards growth and development by obtaining investments and contributions of partners instead of direct investment. Gaining new power based on values increase with the sharing of information held individually by companies, and creating a synergy based on it is one of the fundamental purposes of cooperation. These cooperation and partnerships could be done on a profit or solidarity basis. These kinds of efforts could uplift the industry to the stage of surveillance while creating a new mobile ecosystem.

Project Management: In addition to attributes such as information, skill, capital, and cooperation which are required in order to develop and meet the deadlines for certain projects, time and cost parameters should also be known as an important issue. Although investments oriented towards R&D are costly in terms of fast moving consumer goods, they may be influential with their contribution to the projects of the goods to be launched. In this context, the gathering, delivery, evaluation and reflection of project-management oriented data are rapidly coming into existence through benefiting from the mobile system being influential in terms of reflecting on the project in a workable way.

Some activities need to be done during the preparation of projects and conduct of marketing practices. The main one is the creation of a request for proposal or some other creative activities. The preparation of a request for proposal by most service providers in order to fulfill their customers' requests is critical in terms of clearly outlining the required attributes, responsibilities and liabilities during the sales process. Due to the request for proposal forms to be created, it will be easier to identify what the customer wants and to act fast accordingly.

3G Auction Strategy & License Application: Auctions can be held via mobile devices similar to e-commerce. Regardless of the type of auction, participation by phone in every field within the process of auction, which is among the required license applications, has become more personal. In the meantime, some of the enterprises will prefer to be auctioneers. However, the legal infrastructure should operate highly properly in this respect.

Mobile Business Administration Services


The groups which prefer to dwell on certain subjects rather than on all subjects, may desire to reach a conclusion by using mobile administration services in a similar fashion. Mobile administration services have begun to be presented densely on mobile systems that have turned into a new communication environment. They mainly refer to three basic groups as advertisers, publishers and network operators. And the end group is considered to be users who provide their own customers with the services created by the above mentioned services.

  • Advertisers: These are the groups that can reach the mobile consumer group with innovative results that are suitable for the target.

  • Publishers: These are the groups that aim to provide their contents to the mobile consumer group and to profit from their formation and distribution.

  • Network Operators: These are the prominent groups that put forth customer experiences and lead to the growth of mobile marketing and advertising.

  • Users: These are the groups that receive services from the above mentioned advertiser, publisher, and network operators and present these services to their own customers in order to create an advantage.

Advertisers are required to specialize on mobile devices so as to send small scale messages with which the sender could directly influence and stimulate the receiver. Another group is the publishers. They can be considered as the individual or corporate content providers which create massive influences. In this respect, some of the classical publishers have also laid hands on mobile publishing. However, new formations such as mobile blogs can also be foreseen in publishing. Meanwhile, network operators create the group that put on stream the mentioned advertisements and publications and enable their delivery to the customers.

The organization of relational structures such as that of a sales consultant who becomes acquainted with the customer and distinguishes his or her characteristics and makes the customer feel the desire for the long term relationship through the services provided with mobile devices and operators is essential in mobile operational services.

Mobile Advertising


In big cities, people are almost constantly held to advertising raids, and every day they see 1000 advertisements on average (Postman, 1993). As this figure was related with the 1990's, this number must have increased further with the means of the present day. Despite such a massive raid of advertisements, contradictions in terms occur due to an abundance of the mentioned advertisements and most of these advertisements fail to reach their targets. Briefly, it is possible to say that the rate of response to visual advertisements has declined.

On a changing and differentiating axis, advertisers are also, inevitably, captured by the fragmentation of the media. In the present day, there is a shift from advertisements for large masses to smaller masses to niches and even to individuals. According to Kirby and Marsden (2006, p.xix), the positive return on investment (ROI) rate from TV commercial campaigns is 18%. The average rate of return to sales on each dollar spent on commercials is 54 cents. In the last ten years, TV advertising costs have increased by 256%. Only 14% of the people believe the given advertising information. 90% of people zap past TV commercials. Approximately 3000 advertisement messages are seen every day. The list against conventional advertising continues to expand further.

Mass communication is a type of communication without an exact subject, or with a hidden subject. Here, the hidden subject refers to the viewer or spectator. Besides, commercials with a common element are created with the assumption that the interest of most commercial viewers arises by sensuality. In the technological environment, that emphasizes personal characteristics. The major reasons for advertisers' to shift into new alternatives are required to be explained. The users of computers and mobile systems want to go into the process of searching, developing an opinion on the product, and go on shopping. This and similar conditions hint that being faster will further increase the chance of being successful.

Mobile instruments are among the most prominent instruments in these types of advertising activities towards fragmentation into a smaller scale. The point mobile phones have reached in the last ten years has been influential. In their becoming influential can be compared to the rapid development of PDAs. The reason is that mobile instruments constitute a piece of the developing process together with the new personal communication technology. People are gradually becoming more conscious on marketing, and the counter-opinions against conventional marketing campaigns are increasing day by day. Here, “No Logo: No Space, No Choice, and No Jobs” kinds of books, consumption groups and social networks have had a great impact. On the other hand, the growing and developing media channels also make it more difficult to attain the correct objectives. And people are inclining towards individual or self-suitable options rather than mass consumption. Moreover, people demand technologies that block advertisements in order to overcome being continuously attacked by aggressive marketing, and they are directed towards being protected from such attacks.

Ignoring the benefits for businesses and advertisements in the present environment where almost everybody has a cell phone would be irrational. Brands which initially reached consumers via text messages have now entered into a stage where efforts to use more creative and alternative means exist in this field. However, the intensified SMS advertisement use is now also causing consumers to resist against this type of advertising. Therefore, mobile instruments are now employed not only through SMS but also through various other technologies such as MMS, WAP, and Bluetooth.

Mobile marketing is a part of the utmost personal contact environment compared to other marketing environments. Companies using mobile channels are able to communicate with the targeted person at any time of the day anywhere. One of the major indicators of the point the mobile channel has reached is its use during the 2008 election campaigns in the US. Its results imply how powerful mobile advertising would be in the future, if used properly.

Having emerged as an alternative to conventional marketing and advertising channels in the last ten years, the field of use in “mobile advertising” has expanded quite a lot in time due to filling the gaps of other marketing channels with its features as hitting the target mass at the right time and location, and measuring interest towards the product. As the use of mobile devices expand in the globalizing world, the importance of mobile advertisements also increase and efforts are carried out better and more effectively use the mobile marketing techniques.

Mobile advertising is the communication of direct marketing messages on CRM, advertising and promotion to mobile phones through different scenarios and practices concerning brands to customers.

Mobile advertising is on the verge of entering the mobile phone market as a new source of income. Minds are blurred yet regarding how personal advertisements should be shown and which advertising models should be employed. Therefore, companies continue their mobile advertising practices through the trial and error method. Various intra-system applications such as mobile video, sponsored call, coupon systems, wap banners, location-based advertisements, mobile search and mobile Internet arouse interest.

In order to understand the actual potential of mobile advertisements in a multi-platform environment, we need to carry out serious measurements in this channel and proportionately compare mobile advertisements of instruments such as mobile phones with small screens and limited messages but with instant access ability to mass communicative instruments such as TV, and other portable instruments similar to computers which are portable but bulkier compared to mobile phones. This effort would also suggest the measurement of mobile phones among the mentioned three screens, and that of the trials on these instruments. Herein, the remarkable difference is the ability of mobile advertising to communicate content via multi-channels to the targeted market and the targeted individual himself or herself (Reedy, 2008).

It is known that 90% of global brands have been planned to be allocated a budget for mobile advertising in 2008. The mobile advertising market is estimated to achieve an 11 billion dollar turnover by 2011.

According to Leppäniemi and Karjaluoto (2007), mobile advertising can be divided into five categories. The first category is defined as the web category, and the mobile Internet is used in this category (with banners and interstitials such as mobile calling and mobile portals). Most mobile portals are designed for mobile phones. The second category is the publication category. Mobile radio broadcasts, Mobile TV broadcasts, trials or recently launched mobile technologies such as DVB-H, DMB, DAB-IP, MediaFLO and ISDB-T are included in this category. The third category is broadcasts on a narrow field such as mobile casting (a podcast designed to be downloaded by a mobile phone in order to be instant or later played by personal computers, mobile phone, MP3 player, video player or laptop computers), and bluecasting which is sends messages via a Bluetooth transmitter of a Bluetooth device to any mobile phone. The fourth category is the systems defined as the physical scanning category which includes various methods and technologies on touching, showing and scanning (e.g. Hypertag, RFID, barcode, UpCode) and which can be used with a mobile phone or which can access the Internet via mobile phone from a target point. And the last category includes other advertising formats which do not suit any of the previous categories.

According to the E-marketer's report on “Mobile Advertising: After the Growing Pains”, US mobile ad spending in 2007 was 878 million dollars and the figure is projected to reach 1.7 billion dollars at the end of 2008 and exceed 6.5 billion dollars by 2012.

According to the E-marketer, although various mobile communication systems and similar products were introduced in 2007 with a sharp influence on this sector, mobile advertising could not break into the mainstream during 2007.

Next generations will prefer small screens to larger screens; thus, suggesting demands for preferring smaller screens in the field of advertising. Mostly written message elements are rather prominent with respect to the currently available devices in mobile advertising.

Spending On Mobile Advertising


According to the E-marketer, text messages will continue to account for the vast majority of mobile ad spending in the near future, and even the share of text messages in mobile ad spending is expected to reach 88% in 2008. This figure is expected to decrease to nearly 60% in 2012 with 23% share for mobile search advertising and 8% for mobile display ads. Advertisers worldwide are expected to spend 19 billion dollars on the mobile platform in 2012 compared to 2.7 billion dollars in 2007 and 4.6 billion dollars in 2008.

It is estimated that around 74% of the mobile ad spending in 2012 will be for text messaging campaigns. According to Gauntt, who prepared the report of E- marketer, the US seems to be the most active region in web advertising as it is the largest interactive economy.

However, the total spending in the Asia-Pacific region is expected to be larger in 2012 with the adoption of the mobile phone as the primary interactive screen by huge middle classes in China and India.

Mobile advertising is the display of “call-to-action” message or banner on the mobile phone similar to those of the Internet and television ads. For this purpose, SMS, WAP, MMS, Mobile Video or a different application mix can be used.

According to Bulander et al, mobile advertising is divided into three as Broadcast, MANET (Mobile Advertising Network) and dedicated connection. Broadcast is subdivided as local and global, while dedicated connection is subdivided as divided push, pull, and smart push and pull.

Studies on mobile advertising have shown that 14% of the mobile data users in the US ignore mobile advertisements, which implies a low level of recognition on personal advertisement reception. Mobile marketing can be successful if it is directed properly because it is also able to measure reactions at a much faster and on a more personal scale than all previous media instruments. It is an activity that could bring success so long as it does not negatively influence individuals' lives. Similarly, it should possess the characteristics of acting with very different meanings in recognition of the difference, and building an interaction through this difference. People generally tend to continue using elements that add value to their lives. Mobile marketing activities should also be structured so as to increase individuals' wants. As the basic approach is customer orientation, mobile marketing attempts are strongly expected to be efficient. Even on certain points of interest, as with the provision of free of charge communication, some customers may even begin to long for receiving mobile ads.

23% of the data users in the US have further expectations. Many mobile data users are open to marketing experiences which require supporting the general mobile media experience costs. 32% of the users indicate that they would accept mobile advertisements if it provided a discount on their mobile communication bills.

Mobile Message


Mobile message is currently divided into three basic messaging groups. These are SMS, MMS and IM. According to Warren, Lyall and Owen (2007), among the present mass mobile marketing solutions, the channel through which a brand can reach the customer by 100% is SMS messages. Mobile short codes can be added to any media and a wider communication with the customer can be attained. Branding mobile micro sites may enable the presentation of more different and complex messages through connections that emphasize SMS. For example, practices such as giving out coupons through the mobile channel, or mobile ticket applications are suitable fields for expansion. Although the MMS has a better branding talent, it currently has certain gaps and defects, a high cost and it requires some complex operations. The developments for MMS messages have not been completed yet. Instant Messaging (IM) is also regarded as a future potential.

One of the advantages of asynchronous interaction is the user's ability to take part in communication at any time and place they wish. Besides, they have the opportunity to re-visit the discussions. As the period between the conversation, messages and replies through this type of interaction is very long, it is named as “slow motion”.

Mobile Portal


A mobile portal enables a joint, personalized access to data, expertise, and applications by using mobile devices. According to Tsalgatidou, Veijalainen and Pitoura (2000), mobile portals can help users in this respect by offering personalized and localized services, and by taking into account the user's preferences, language, previous behavior and so on. Warren, Lyall and Owen (2007) also uttered that mobile banner advertisements, interstitials and sponsored contents can be presented with the skills and equipment to be developed by the operators in the mobile content section. In order to see the actual effect of the sponsor supported content, a good list of equipments is required. Interstitials are the ads that appear on a separate browser window while uploading a web page. They mostly consist of presentations with flowing graphics or small applications then the traditional banner advertisements. According to research, the users click on interstitials more than banner advertisements. Meanwhile, some users complained that it slows down the page desired to be accessed retireved 7/6/2008). It can be realized on mobile system in different ways with advertising and similar communication permits to be obtained via portal before the search.

Mobile Off-Portal & Search


Due to the limitations in use and the walls bonded by the operators, mobile Internet sites have not received much interest so far. However, content brands are willing to include mobile research in addition to other research when creating their contents with the present technology that presents the features which could make this possible especially the means of real-time mobile Internet research have begun to develop. Here, also the influence of creating marketing opportunities through content brands is noted and the use of such sites is increasing. Even, they are tried to be developed as advertising models which could be included in major search engines such as Google and Yahoo. From 2009 onwards, proximity based marketing applications will become easily receivable by mobile phones (Warren, Lyall and Owen, 2007).

Mobile Search


The human being is always inquisitive since his or her birth. From researching, the human being benefits from the structure with comprehensive information circulating in the digital environment. The information in this structure shows dramatic differences in terms of the approach to the subject and evaluation of the subjects, and literally requires running your head against a brick wall while working in an environment with millions of pieces of information on a certain subject. In parallel to the development of the digital environment, first Internet and then the search engines have stepped in. The mobile versions of these search engines have also been developed for ease of reaching specific information. Yahoo One Search 2.0 service of Yahoo leads the groups that deliver such services. Web2go provides a better Web browsing experience on your mobile phone by making it easier to view and navigate (http://designtaxi.com/news.jsp?id=22245&monthview=1&month=11&year=2008). Studies on the configuration of the search engines for providing the best service are ongoing. The purpose of the categorization and grouping of search results on a screen, and the development of the related functions is to prevent the chaos, and to filter and take beneficial information from the environment which is also named as digital trash. The users of the search engine can also send text messages and obtain results from the system.

The interview with Tsirulnik (2008) indicates the view of the sector regarding mobile search. Accordingly, it is seen that the sector does not consider its customers as fully prepared for mobile search yet and even they are suspicious on how much of the idea is adopted by customers, how much they can search and to what extent they have understood the means provided in this regard. Meanwhile, the utilization volume of the call function is not dense enough for website optimizations. As not all of the mobile phones that are available in the market belong to different generations have the same capabilities, an increase in the number of users with the means such as GPS WAP and innovative thinking should also increase. 3G and higher performance mobile phones will drive people and organizations to “mobile search” because it will be possible to make all current Internet searches via mobile phones and similar mobile instruments with the same, or maybe even with a higher speed. Furthermore, time is required to establish information obtained through contingencies in this field. It requires reaching an experienced critical mass in the pursuit of speed. The experts predict the required situation will develop in the market in 10 years.

Mobile Broadcast


The number of mobile phones ready for mobile TV, video and radio broadcasts is gradually increasing, although currently the number of such phones is limited. Actually almost all of these features mentioned above are used in Japan. Meanwhile, the recording and storage capacities of mobile instruments are also gradually increasing. Consequently, mobile TV and radio broadcasting will turn into an important income generator model. These channels present unique opportunities to their clients in terms of traditional advertising and product promotions. As the customers are not willing to pay for the content, the owners of these media types are rather directed towards advertising and a sponsorship type of business models. In addition to the higher capacities of hitting the target compared to the conventional broadcasting, their costs are also expected to be lower (Warren, Lyall and Owen, 2007).

Mobile Content


Mobile content is any type of media which is employed on mobile phones, like ringtones, graphics, discount offers, games, and movies Games, images, mobishows, music and videos are the most used contents. These are very important for marketers that want to reach and gain their customers. Mobile phones are the instruments that can be easily personalized by individuals with their games, sounds or entertainment aspects. Sponsorships and the issues such as advertisements in games should be supported in terms of rapidly exhilarating the market. The Internet, mobile social networks, and fields such as videos and blogs that are made by the users also create cost-effective opportunities. (Warren, Lyall and Owen, 2007)

Mobile CRM


Mobile CRM is one of the main opportunities, which has not been used widely for brands. According to Eklund (2002), mobile CRM is a solution that extends the reach of customer relationship management applications to any user remotely whenever and wherever needed. Through dense brand interaction, mobile CRM is expected to create a difference and high customer spending by creating a difference in terms of service towards obtaining loyalty. Examples of mobile CRM are the SMS customer service messages sent by banks, or the customer communication messages by home delivery companies or airlines (Warren, Lyall & Owen, 2007). However not all CRM applications are ripe for mobilization (Hildreth, 2006). This gives a hint for CRM and mobile firms to create new kinds of improvements for the new types of customers.

Mobile Locals


Location Based Marketing is also named as proximity marketing. Proximity marketing is a method of distribution where advertising content is presented through associating with a certain place. Here, it is possible to transfer the content through obtaining the approval of people at a certain location. Also the necessary equipment should be available. According to Warren, Lyall and Owen (2007), proximity marketing experiences are presented during the presentation of certain up-to-date advertisements or promotions. A similar study was carried out by Yamamoto, Candan and Aydin (2008). Such broadcasts are transferred to customers particularly through Wi-Fi or Bluetooth boards, which are installed at a certain place. The reason for such attempts is the tremendously low cost and the presentation of the promotions to the clients at exactly the right time. With promotions presented through this method, customers are informed faster and they are made available to place their offers in a short time. At present, such activities with development potential for companies both seem technically complex and they can also be perceived as spams. With further development of technical features of mobile phones, the mobile phone will also become a mobile payment channel in addition to being an instrument of promotions and so, they will be more attractive for users.

Mobile Handsets


Mobile phone branding is the creation of alternative channels by a group of alternative channels to achieve their objectives. In addition to physical branding, pre-installed branded materials, which can be presented by mobile phone sellers in groups, can also be included. Advertising or promotions can also be sent instead of the screensaver depending on the location of the telephone which remains idle. Advertising-based free of charge calls are already realized by MVNOs. They can also be targeted as similar prepaid sections (Warren, Lyall and Owen, 2007).

Mobile Terminals


Mobile terminals also appear as prospective target platforms in addition to mobile phones and PDA's. These terminals are spread on a wide area. These terminals can also be defined as the systems that can present multimedia content and high accessibility to portable devices. However, access to the individual at a high level is of utmost importance especially with regard to issues such as privacy. Also, mobile advertisements that are separable from spam messages may be influential on individuals. Moreover, the limited user interfaces of mobile devices appear as another troublesome issue. Bulander et al (2007) presented a mobile advertising solution approach in their study. They named this solution as MoMa. This project was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Labor (BMWA). MoMa is a highly personalized and content-sensitive system that can guarantee data protection in mobile advertising. It emphasizes the requirement of distinguishing public and personal information in this context.